Introduction: Techniques for Centering Text in HTML

Centering text in HTML is an essential technique in web design, used to improve the visual appeal and readability of a webpage. This article provides a comprehensive guide on different methods to center text, from basic HTML to advanced CSS techniques.

Understanding the Syntax for Centering Text

Text alignment in HTML and CSS is achieved through specific syntax and properties. In HTML, tags define the structure and presentation of content, while CSS uses properties to style and align the content. Understanding this syntax is key to effectively centering text.

Tutorial: Basic Method to Center Text in HTML

The simplest, though outdated, method to center text in HTML is using the <center> tag:

This tag directly centers the enclosed text within its parent element. However, it is not recommended for use in modern web design as it has been deprecated in HTML5 due to its limited flexibility and separation of content from style.

Demonstration and Output: HTML Text Centering

The <center> tag in HTML is a straightforward way to center text, but it’s important to remember that this method is now considered outdated and does not comply with modern web development standards. The reason for its obsolescence is largely due to the evolution of web design towards a clear separation of content (HTML) and style (CSS). Despite this, understanding how it works can be beneficial for dealing with legacy code or for basic educational purposes.

Here is a simple demonstration of using the <center> tag:

In this example, any text within the <center> tags is displayed in the middle of its containing element. When you open this HTML file in a web browser, you’ll see the sentence “This text is centered using the HTML center tag.” aligned in the center of the page.

However, in modern web design, it is recommended to use CSS for styling purposes, including text alignment. CSS offers greater flexibility and control, allowing for more complex designs and responsive layouts. The <center> tag, being a direct styling element within HTML, goes against the principle of keeping content and style separate. This separation is a cornerstone of modern web practices, enabling cleaner code, easier maintenance, and better adaptability to various devices and screen sizes.

Advanced Method: Using CSS to Center Text

Centering text with CSS is more versatile and recommended for contemporary web design. The most common property used is text-align:

CSS Code

Practical Example: CSS Approach for Text Alignment

Here’s how to apply the CSS method:

This approach separates the styling from the HTML structure, allowing for easier maintenance and better responsiveness.

Comparative Results: HTML vs CSS Text Centering

Comparing the two methods, CSS offers far greater control and flexibility. It supports responsive design, is widely accepted in modern web development, and adheres to the best practices of separating content and presentation.

Additional Examples: CSS Alternatives for Centering Text

Other CSS properties like Flexbox can be used for more advanced centering:

This method is particularly useful for centering content both vertically and horizontally, and is highly responsive.

Visual Results: Assessing the CSS Centering Outputs

The visual output of CSS centering is more polished and adaptable to different screen sizes. Using methods like Flexbox or Grid, designers can create layouts that adjust seamlessly to various devices.

Exploring the DOM Interface for Text Centering

Manipulating the Document Object Model (DOM) with JavaScript to dynamically apply CSS styles for text centering is an advanced and highly flexible approach. This method is particularly useful when you need the text alignment to change in response to certain events or user interactions, such as clicking a button or resizing a window.

Here’s an example that demonstrates how JavaScript can be used to center text dynamically:

HTML Structure

In this HTML structure, we have a <div> element containing some text and a button. When the button is clicked, we want to center the text inside the <div>.


Let’s define a CSS class for centering text:

JavaScript (script.js)

Now, we’ll use JavaScript to add this class to the <div> when the button is clicked:

javascriptCopy code

In this JavaScript code, we first add an event listener to the button. When the button is clicked, the event listener triggers a function. This function selects the <div> containing the text (using its ID) and then adds the ‘centered-text’ class to it. As a result, the text within the <div> becomes centered.

This method showcases the power of combining HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. It allows for dynamic and interactive web design, where the style of elements can be changed in real-time in response to user actions.

CSS Grid: A Modern Method for Centering Text

CSS Grid is a modern layout system in CSS that has revolutionized the way web developers create complex and responsive layouts. One of its many capabilities includes efficiently centering content, such as text, within an element. This method stands out for its simplicity, robustness, and flexibility, making it particularly suitable for modern web designs that require adaptability across different screen sizes and devices.

Understanding CSS Grid for Centering

CSS Grid allows you to create a grid-based layout system, where you can place elements in rows and columns with ease. For centering text, the relevant properties are display: grid and place-items: center.

The display: grid property defines the element as a grid container, establishing a new grid formatting context for its content. The place-items: center is a shorthand for setting both align-items and justify-items to center. This centers the child elements both vertically and horizontally within their grid area.

Code Snippet: Centering Text with CSS Grid

In this CSS, any element with the class .grid-center will become a grid container with its content (e.g., text) centered both vertically and horizontally.

HTML Example

In this example, the <div> with the class grid-center creates a grid container. The text within this <div> is centered both horizontally and vertically. The height of the container is set to 200px for demonstration purposes, and a border is added to visualize the grid area.

Advantages of Using CSS Grid for Centering Text

Flexibility: CSS Grid in Layout Challenges

CSS Grid is an incredibly flexible system that can handle a wide array of layout challenges, including the centering of elements. Its compatibility with other CSS properties and responsiveness to media queries make it a robust choice for responsive design.

Simplicity: Streamlining the Centering Process

The grid layout significantly simplifies the process of centering elements within a container. It eliminates the need for complex CSS tricks or the use of multiple nested elements, making the code more readable and maintainable.

Consistency: Uniform Centering Across Varied Conditions

CSS Grid provides a consistent approach to centering, unaffected by the size of the container or the amount of content. This uniformity ensures a reliable visual appearance across different parts of a website.

Alignment Control: Comprehensive Layout Management

Beyond mere centering, CSS Grid offers extensive control over alignment, spacing, and the distribution of space within a grid. This level of control is especially advantageous in complex layouts where precise alignment is key.

Browser Support: Widespread Compatibility

Modern browsers offer robust support for CSS Grid, making it a dependable choice for contemporary web design. This widespread browser compatibility ensures that layouts created with CSS Grid will function consistently across different viewing environments.


CSS Grid’s method for centering text represents a significant step forward in CSS layout techniques. It not only simplifies the process of centering but also integrates seamlessly into a broader system for creating sophisticated and responsive web layouts. For web developers and designers aiming to create flexible and maintainable designs, CSS Grid is an invaluable tool in their toolkit.